PVC Pipe Fitting Types – A Complete Guide

PVC pipe fittings are used to connect PVC pipes in different ways to meet your plumbing needs. They are detachable pieces of pipe that fix two tubing or pipes in plumbing and mechanical operations.

Benefits of PVC Pipe Fittings

Some of the benefits of PVC pipe fittings include:

  • Cost effective: PVC pipe fittings are affordable and this makes them a go-to choice for projects that are on a tight budget.
  • Durability: They are not affect ted by corrosion and this ensures that they are able to last for a very long time with minimum maintenance. PVC pipe fittings can withstand the effects of the weather and other environmental factors
  • Easy to install: PVC pipe fittings are installed with ease as they are available in a wide range of shapes and sizes. They are light in weight makes their transportation to the project site.
  • Chemical resistance: they are resistant to acid and alkaline substances thus suitable for use in industries that use strong chemicals.
  • Eco-friendly: PVC pipe fittings are made from materials that are recycled materials making them environmentally friendly. They also ensure reduction in carbon footprint as less energy in productions and transportation is required.

Types of PVC Pipe Fitting

There are many types of PVC pipe fittings. Some of the common ones include but not limited to:

· PVC Compression Fittings

PVC compression fittings are a type of PVC pipe fittings that have a body, nut, and gasket ring. The gasket ring is used to compress the body to the pipe fitting by tightening the nut. PVC compression fittings are PVC fittings often used in small plumbing jobs around the house that may need to be repaired often.

PVC Compression Fitting
PVC Compression Fitting

· PVC Elbows

PVC elbows are used to change the direction of a piping system and are widely used in both piping and drainage systems. They are available in two types which include PVC 45-degree elbow and PVC 90-degree elbow used depending on the direction of the piping.

90-Degree Elbow PVC
90-Degree Elbow PVC
45-Degree Elbow PVC
45-Degree Elbow PVC

· PVC Crosses

PVC crosses have four ends which connect four pipes flowing in different directions and create a junction. They are ideal in plumbing applications that connect different lines of supply.

PVC Cross
PVC Cross

· PVC Coupling

PVC coupling are PVC pipe fittings that are used to connect two pipes of the same diameter making them preferable due to their simplicity and ease of working with.

PVC reducing coupling on the other hand works the same as a PVC coupling with the only difference being that it is used to connect pipes with different diameters.

Both the PVC coupling and the PVC reducing coupling are ideal for drainage and plumbing fittings.

PVC Coupling
PVC Coupling

·PVC Tees

Tees pipe fitting derive their name from the letter T. Just like the letter, they have openings at each end and one in the middle. They are used to connect two pipes together which are redirecting in different directions and are mainly used for drainage and plumbing.


·PVC Unions

PVC unions work almost similar to PVC couplings with the only difference being that PVC unions are threaded to allow for easy dismantling of the piping connection in case of repairs or maintenance. PVC unions are available in either 3, 4, or 5-way elbow.

  • 3-Way Elbow

PVC union 3-way flow is a type of PVC fitting with three openings. The three openings are two at each end and one in the middle. This type of PVC fitting is used to connect two pipes to the main pipe to supply in two different directions.

3-Way Elbow
3-Way Elbow
  • 4-Way Elbow

A 4-way elbow PVC union has four openings for connecting four pipes together. This type of PVC plumbing is very ideal for plumbing applications that require connecting different customers.

4-Way Elbow
4-Way Elbow
  • 5 Way Elbow

5 way elbow PVC union has five openings and are usually connected to a larger main pipe or plumbing system. They are not very popular compared to the other types of union PVC union pipe fittings.

Way Elbow
5-Way Elbow

· PVC Nipples

PVC nipples are short pipes of different diameters that are used to connect to connect other PVC pipe fittings. The pipe fittings can be two female ends connected to two male threaded ends which are the PVC nipples.

PVC Nipples
PVC Nipples

· PVC Caps and Plugs

PVC caps and plugs are a type of PVC pipe fitting used for sealing pipe fittings. They prevent water or other fluids from pouring out of the piping system. Most of the PVC caps and plugs are threaded for easy and tight fixing.

Different PVC pipe fittings have different PVC caps and plugs that are specialized for the specific piping system.

PVC Caps and Plugs
PVC Caps and Plugs

· PVC Adapters And Bushing

PVC adapters and bushings are pipe fittings that are used to connect pipes that are of different sizes in diameter. Bushings are usually threaded on one side with a smooth bore on the other end to fit with a pipe of different diameter.

PVC Bushing
PVC Bushing

· PVC Flanges

PVC flanges are pipe fittings that are used to connect accessories such as the base of a toilet to a PVC pipe fitting. They are usually disc-like with flat surfaces. To fix them to a pipe fitting, they can be bolted or welded into place to create a tight seal.

PVC Flange
PVC Flange

· PVC Pipe Bushing.

PVC pipe bushings are pipe fittings that are installed to cover pipes and other fittings from damage. They are commonly used where pipe fittings are subject to easy damage.

PVC Pipe Fitting Standards

Some of the PVC pipe fitting standards include:

· Schedule 40 PVC Fitting

This PVC standard have a thicker wall pipe compared to the other PVC pipe fitting standards. This feature means they are durable and can withstand higher pressure which makes them ideal for high-pressure applications such as plumbing.

· Schedule 80 PVC Fitting

Schedule 80 PVC fittings are thinner and used in light applications that do not require high pressure such as kitchen sink water drainage.


British Standard Pipe is a standard that guides threated fittings and is a guideline required in the UK and mostly European countries.


ASTM is an American standard for testing different material among them the PVC pipe fittings.

·  GB

GB is a Chinese standard that provides the standardization of different materials and products among them PVC pipe fittings.

Sizing PVC Pipe Fittings

Sizing PVC pipe fitting is an important factor to consider when choosing the right PVC pipe fitting to work with. PVC pipe fittings are selected according to the nominal size also known as NPS.

NPS is measured in inches and for a PVC fitting to fit into a pipe and have a tight seal, they both need to have the same NPS.

Another aspect of sizing PVC pipe fittings is using the schedule. The schedule is the measurement of the PVC pipe wall thickness. It is good to understand the schedule of a pipe so as to choose the correct schedule for PVC pipe fitting.

Application Of PVC Pipe Fittings

Some of the applications of PVC pipe fittings include:

· Household Drainage

PVC pipe fittings are used in household drainage such as sewer lines and septic systems. Some of the PVC pipe fittings used for household drainage include couplings, elbows, tees, and unions among other.

· Underground Irrigation

PVC pipe fittings such as tees, elbows, couplings, and reducers are widely used for underground irrigation in ensuring there is uninterrupted flow of water.

· Sprinkler Systems

PVC pipe fittings are also handy when it comes to sprinkler systems. They are used to avoid leaks and also connecting water systems to the different sprinkler systems.

· Swimming Pools

Elbows, couplings, and reducers are just some of the PVC pipe fittings types you can find in swimming pool water systems.

· Water Supply

Water supply systems heavily utilize the different PVC pipe fitting types. Water mains and distribution types rely heavily on PVC pipe fittings such as reducers and tees.

· Industrial Applications

Different industrial applications such as water treatment plants also utilize different PVC pipe fittings depending on the applications.


Choosing the right PVC fitting is essential in avoiding costly repairs, leakages, and hazards caused by leakages. Always ensure that you seek professional help if you are not sure of what PVC pipe fitting you want to use.


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