Forging is an essential step in the production of valves at our D&R.
When producing metal products, it is difficult to turn the material into the target shape as the metal is solid. Therefore, we have to change the temperature of the metal.
The “forging” is actually a hot extrusion process. The mechanical properties of the valves after forging are good because the metal blanks are heated, extruded, and cooled after forging and their metal structure is changed, which improves the corrosion resistance of the valves.
Brass Forging – The Complete Guide
People are constantly searching for the best brass forging process.
This guide is perfect for those who need a professional opinion on how to detect fake, forged, or counterfeit products.
If you are new to the forging process, this is an all-inclusive resource that will teach you everything you need to know about making your custom brass products.
This Brass Forging FAQs Guide breaks down all the details of the process so that you can master it!
- What Is Brass Forging?
- Advantages Of Brass Forging
- Forged Brass Parts
- Brass Forging Parts Process
- Different Brass Forging Techniques
- Brass Forging Machine And Equipment
- Brass Forging Vs. Brass Casting
- Factors Determining Brass Forging Cost
- Grades Of Brass For Metal Forging Process
- Brass Hot Forging Vs. Brass Cold Forging
- Surface Finishing For Brass Forged Components
- Common Brass Forging Defect
1. What Is Brass Forging?
Brass forging is the age-old use of heat and pressure to mold brass into different shapes.
The interaction between the rolling force and the high temperature induces plastic deformation in brass.
Makes it possible to produce components with complicated geometries.
Brass forging is the metalworking technique used to manually shape brass and its alloys into objects such as gates, railings, bed hardware, furniture parts, sculpture, and many other items.
In traditional metalworking techniques, smiths hammer hot metal to reduce the metal’s work hardening by causing dislocations and interstitial solid solutions in the material.
Brass forging is an ancient technique that has been used since the Bronze Age to create luxurious hand-crafted items.
By using traditional forms and tools, artisans and craftspeople can ultimately maximize their materials to create works of art.
While brass has been used as a decorative material since ancient times, it has only recently been used as a medium for sculpture.
2. Advantages Of Brass Forging
Brass forging has been around for centuries. Brass stamping is still one of the most popular.
Here are a few reasons why brass forging is such a beneficial process:
i. High Strength
Brass forged parts can have a component or assembly where the functional requirements, such as high strength, design complexity, stiffness, or limit strength, are critical.
This is because forged Brass components and parts are made in this forging process.
The forging process takes a heated steel bar and hammers it into shape by impact blows. This is carried out between rotating dies with a punch at one end and a shaped anvil at the opposite end.
ii. Leakage Resistance
When a casting drops, it must be sent back for forging to give it strength again through a reheating process and further reinforcement.
The forging makes the metal reach its maximum strength and gives excellent resistance to leakage.
Leakage occurs when the metal is worn out because of its repeated use, tear, or damaged by an external factor.
In the Brass Forging process, we do not include Lead in the mix of metal. Thus, this metal does not carry the density of Lead.
As a result, it remains in its solid state even when subjected to high strain at elevated temperatures. This property makes it one of the best Leakage Resistance materials available.
iii. Accurate Tolerances
With their high level of consistent roundness, brass Forged parts ensure that perfectly spherical components can be produced.
Together with highly accurate dimensions within ten thousandths of an inch.
This manufacturing method has not equal when precision and roundness are combined as one.
Each step in the forging process is crucial to providing a superior product that stands up to the most stringent requirements of modern manufacturing.
iv. Low Costs
One of the benefits of brass forging is lower cost. One benefit is eliminating many steps and waste in the manufacturing process.
If you’re producing a hundred or more of something at once, this can add time and cost. This process is excellent for mass production because it saves time on labor and materials.
v. Absence of Porosity
Brass forging is a manufacturing process involving brass working under extreme pressure. The series of processes used by this process helps ensure there are no porosity problems.
Porosity is the presence of air pockets on the surface and inside the product, which causes corrosion, leakages in liquid products, and increases weight.
vi. Long Operating Life
Brass forging process products usually carry a longer operating life.
This is because of their excellent anti-fatigue capability, high tensile strength wire, strict design.
Besides, excellent heat treatment after forging, specified annealed treatment to decide their efficiency applicable to purpose.
The first reason is that mechanical fatigue resistance benefits from the temperature resistance of brass material.
As we know, brass has a good performance in radiator water or air heat exchangers, and it can resist corrosion well because it contains 75% copper and 25% zinc.
3. Forged Brass Parts
Brass is a metallic material used for automotive, agricultural, sanitary, electrical, and engineering equipment manufacturing. It has various features needed for its proper functioning, such as die-casting and others.
Brass Forging Parts
The parts can be found in almost any device you have at your home. Some of the highlighting features and products of the industries mentioned above are given as follows:
i. Sanitary And Pipe Fittings
As we all know, the brass forging process is an essential metal forming process.
Brass forging parts are widely used in sanitary and pipe fittings, such as mechanical seals, valve components, pump body/rotor, etc.
The main parts of the brass forging product in the sanitary and pipe fittings industry include anvil, horn, dies, mold blocks, fixtures, punch dies, and others.
ii. Agricultural Industry
Brass parts from the forging process are widely used in agriculture machinery, such as sucker rods, pump rods, and other transmission parts.
The tool made from brass forging can be more durable than steel tools.
Under the brass forging process, we could produce agricultural machine parts(like weight-head, connecting rod end, rotary shaft movable parts, drilling pipe pieces, and so on).
Also, precision industrial machinery parts (like air compressor movable parts, valve-tappet, and so on) and any other small or medium-sized parts that demand high precise and good surface quality.
iii. Automotive Industry
Brass Forging has been used to manufacture various automotive parts throughout history.
The process of brass forging is a process that involves using pressure to shape metal into can parts, pump housings and covers, radiators and water tanks, chassis bushings, engine valve covers, clutch plates decorative pieces, and fuel injectors.
Brass parts have traditionally been used to form decorative trim pieces, knobs, and select fuel injector components in the automotive industry.
Automotive parts include window regulator brackets, door parts, cylinder head pads, and transmission parts.
These products require complex shapes that are formed by Aluminizing & then machining the part to its finished dimensions.
iv. Electrical Equipment’s
Brass Forging can be used to fabricate complex parts for many industries, such as Electrical and Engineering.
It has a wide range of products used in various uses, from consumer to industrial.
The engineering and electrical industries use brass to create crucial pieces of equipment. Some of the more common parts made from this process are components for generators, voltage amps, and even sophisticated medical devices.
Many components manufactured from this process are foundry products, such as centrifugal casting parts, bronze nozzles, shut-off valves, actuators, etc.
4. Brass Forging Parts Process
Brass Forging is a metal forming process that involves repeatedly heating the brass below its melting point and then shaping the metal until it cools into a final shape.
The primary and essential processes that [performs during forging brass are given as follows:
i. Cutting Heating
The cutting and heating process is essential to Brass Forging. In the cutting process, metal is cut into two parts (a big part and a small part).
And in the heating process, those two parts are put into the forging machine and heated.
Heat will soften the metal, making the small part move toward the big part.
After that, a worker will use a forging tool (Hammer) to make force on the small part.
That force will make the small part move to the big part.
A heated piece of brass is repeatedly hammered until the desired shapes are formed.
This method can create multiple small parts simultaneously and allows for faster production than creating each part individually.
The slug is in cutting shape after heating, placed in between dies, and pressed together. That allows the slug to form the required shape in the cavities already in liquid shape.
Forging involves heating the steel to molten and. The material is soft and malleable; therefore, it can be shaped. After forging, the metal is allowed to cool, making it hard again.
The most used tools used in forging are hammer and anvil.
When the heated bar of metal or ingot is placed between the lower die (anvil) and upper die (hammer), pressure is applied to the upper die to make the solidifying metal flow into shape.
Brass Forging Process
Trimming is a step process in a brass forging; it mainly removes flash metal and burrs on the forging surface, and makes full use of metal.
There are three operation steps for trimming: beveling, retreating, and squaring trimming; beveling is cutting off burrs left on the edge of the forged parts by forging die.
Retreating trimming is to sharpen ridges on the forging surface, which causes burrs; squaring trimming is to cut off flash metal.
iv. Shot Blasting
Shot blasting is a regular surface finishing process that improves the surface appearance of the products after the trimming process.
The brass surface will be covered with layers of coagulum by shot blasting, making the surface smooth.
This process can also remove defects such as minor dents on the surface and improve the product surface quality.
5. Different Brass Forging Techniques
The central brass forging methods include
- open die forging,
- close die forging
- fabricating-type forging
1. Open Die Forging
A two-part mold is used to forge the object in open die forging.
According to the drawing, the open die part is placed in the die opener and then pressed down by the leading die and punched.
And then, it will use a tool or punch to hit the actual forming part from both sides alternately.
2. Closed Die Forging
In close die forging, a one-part mold involves pressing out an object. This is a solid Brass Forging Technique.
This brass forging technique is used in closed die forging.
This is a process where a metal object or part is placed inside a die and then hammered or pressed using power tools.
This process is similar to the drop hammer, which uses the same principle.
Brass Forging Techniques
3. Fabricating-Type Forging
Fabricating-type forging involves using a custom-made upper and lower die and taking apart the object after being forged.
Brass Forging is a technique used when the complete shape of the component is relatively large.
This manufacturing method incorporates a high degree of plasticity at the interfaces between materials and decreases internal stresses.
Therefore, it is often used to create components where appearance is necessary (e.g., jewelry).
6. Brass Forging Machine And Equipment
Multiple brass forging machines are used in manufacturing industries as per parts requirements.
The primary three machines which are used in this process are given:
i. Horizontal Brass Forging machine
The Horizontal Brass Forging machine aims to give a complex and permanent mold form to the brass strip after heated.
This shape is formed by instruments that strike the heated strip, which has been placed on the anvils of the machine.
The horizontal Brass Forging machine is perfect for slag elimination, conforming, and edging. Horizontal Brass Forging Machine can also be used in the hydraulic forging process and hot forging processing according to work pieces’ inner structure of the complex form.
ii. Vertical Brass Forging Machine
The purpose of the Vertical Brass Forging Machine is to make the process of forging brass faster and more efficiently while at the same time minimizing materials waste.
It is designed to force air up through the bottom of a large pile of brass rods.
This, in turn, keeps them more relaxed and eliminates many problems that arise with traditional up/down-draft gravity forging.
These may include inconsistent heating and cooling, warped and fragmented finished parts, etc.
iii. Rotary Brass Forging Machine
The Brass Forging Machine, is also called Rotary Brass Forging Machine.
It is mainly used for blanking and deep drawing of brass/copper strips to make brass/copper tubes, sheets, and mesh.
Brass Forging Machine Equipment’s
The main components of the brass forging machine are given as follows:
a) Ground Furnace
Ground furnace components are core components of a brass forging machine. And its primary role is to make slab and ingot equilibrated in weight.
It works with the clamp of the carrier, then heats the slab into an ingot with low vibration.
b) Vertical Furnace
A vertical furnace is a big chunk of metal used in brass forging machines to heat forged metal pieces.
Sometimes, a vertical furnace is attached to the top of the pressure casting machine so it can also work as a mold.
The primary usage of Rolls component in brass forging machines is to keep the component from sliding, and it is mainly used for adjusting the length of the product.
d) Die And Mould
The die and mold component used in the brass forging machine is an essential part.
These two machines work together with a punch, shaped like a tool for cutting, which goes up and down inside the die.
The brass material enters the die through an opening to slide past this cutting tool.
As the piece moves through the press, it is pushed against this die cavity by a giant piston that travels through its cylinder.
Anvils are perhaps one of the essential parts of a brass forging machine. They are used to hold down and shape the brass at each stage of the forging process.
An anvil is a forged tool designed to withstand a more significant amount of pressure than applied.
The surface of the anvil is made so that punches, chisels, and other tools can be struck on them without being damaged.
f) Control System
The Control system component is the core of the brass forging machine, which consists of a control panel, computer, torque controller, servo motor, etc.
7. Brass Forging Vs. Brass Casting
There are a few differences between bass forging and brass casting below in the table.
|· In brass forging, the metal is heated until it becomes malleable into hot metal, and then it is hammered with a hammer or other pressing tools.
· It produces a more substantial, more versatile part because it is left to cool and solidify by itself.
· Forging has higher strength and elasticity.
· Brass Forging benefits better mechanical properties, lower costs, and higher quality.
· This process makes for a lightweight yet exact and robust product.
|· Brass Casting is the method to make only surface shapes all over the part as one piece without any cavity.
· Brass casting is a restricted process due to the high amount of intricate detail needed to build small-sized intricate parts with good dimensional consistency.
· Casting has a more homogenous structure.
· Brass casting is done by pouring liquid brass (a mixture of copper, zinc, and other ingredients) into plaster molds.
· This process makes for a solid but less exact product.
8. Factors Determining Brass Forging Cost
Many factors determine brass forging cost.
The type of parts to be made, length and width of the parts, specifications and tolerances, the material being forged and its purity level, and the complexity of the shape are just some of the main factors.
i. Type And Dimensions Of Parts
Depending upon your requirements, different types of parts are worked out.
The requirements, such as the dimension and specification of the product and the tools used for working out, can be used to decide the ideal cost for brass forging.
Material is a huge factor in determining the cost of brass forging.
Whether you are looking for a pan or decorative pieces for your home, you have to consider the metal quality that you wish to use.
iii. Complexity Of Project
Complex projects require an increased number of setups.
Hence, cause a substantial increase in the cost, which ultimately needs to be passed down to customers at a price premium.
iv. Purity Level
Purity is the percentage of precious metal in an alloy. The purity level is the prime contributing factor to the cost of brass forging.
High purity levels result in a higher cost.
In addition, other factors also contribute, like the weight of the brass and its end use for it.
v. Quality And Quantity
Quality and quantity are the two factors that influence the cost of brass forging.
Many buyers ask for quotations to find out about the cost of brass forging, but quantity is not considered.
Some others calculate the unit cost of each item to find out its overall cost, but they do not consider quality.
Both these methods make them pay a bit more price.
9. Grades Of Brass For Metal Forging Process
There are multiple types of grades of brass used in metal forging brass, some of which are given as:
i. Alloy 260
260 brass is used in applications where maximum strength and hardness are required, such as bearing, sliding, and wear surfaces.
Brass forging alloys play a pivotal role in many industries. They are applied in cylinder blocks, camshafts, crankshafts, and necks in the automotive industry.
ii. Alloy 272
The purpose of the 272-grade alloy is to reduce the cost of brass foundry castings primarily used in architectural applications. It is a cheaper and readily available alloy to use when you need the least amount of copper (Cu) in your alloy.
iii. Alloy 330
Grade alloys of brass 330 are generally used in brass Forging and Brass casting due to their high-temperature resistance and machinability.
They vary from yellow-colored to red color and can be easily swaged.
iv. Alloy 353
This combines zinc, copper, and magnesium used in the Brass Forging process to produce a wider variety of castings, from soft and intricate parts like watches to heavy and heavier parts.
v. Alloy 360
The grade alloy 360 and the higher quality is leaded brass forging pate. The alloy 360 brass Forging pâte is used in some industries like die casting, Auto parts, Electric wires, hardware parts, etc.
vi. Alloy C48201–C45000
C48201–45000 series alloy is generally used for making kinds of wire and other alloying materials for Brass Forging.
In addition, the C48200 – C48500 series contains 46% Zn and 0.10% Mn, which is higher than the C36000 series content. It has excellent extrusion property with a mint-green appearance in the molding.
10. Brass Hot Forging Vs. Brass Cold Forging
Hot And Cold Brass Forging Machines
|Brass Hot Forging
|Brass Cold Forging
|· Brass hot forging is a heat treatment process used to produce high forged products by heating the brass to a specific temperature, melting it, and pushing it under heavy pressure.
· The advantage of this process is a good surface quality since the core of the final product remains relatively soft and malleable.
· Due to the increase in temperature, thermal deformation risk results in imperfections at the surface.
· The temperature range of hot brass forging is 950 °C – 1250 °C.
|· It is a highly cost-effective process.
· Environmentally friendly and faster production speed
· Wide choice of metals with high production output.
· It increased the quality and long life of the product by eliminating possible adverse reactions like porosity and fatigue.
· Only Simple and less complex designs can manufacture through cold forging.
· Almost 70% of material saves through this process.
Hot and Cold Brass Forging
Hot And Cold Brass Forging Temperatures
11. Surface Finishing For Brass Forged Components
There are few surface finishing techniques used in brass forged components are given as:
i. Shot Blasting
Shot Blasting surface finishing makes the surface of the metal less rough and smoother. Shot blasting does not make changes in the dimensions of the product.
Pickling surface finishing is a technique of applying thin oxide layers, thus allowing you to create an infinite variety of colors and combinations by creating your patina.
The process creates a high luster brass that is very scratch resistant. Cold working pickling type surface finishing can improve the appearance and add more strength to the brass parts.
Through electroplating surface finishing, the brass products will change the original color of brass into black or dark purple and add a layer of nickel to the brass product.
The polishing surface finishing, also known as the mill finish, is where balls and rotating wheels burnish the brass product and then sand for a smooth and even surface. The visual effect gives the appearance of textured metal.
12. Common Brass Forging Defect
In the brass forging process, multiple types of defects can cause due to lack of negligence or some material or machine problems. Some of the primary defects are given as follows:
Most of the overburning disorder in brass forging refers to the forging defect; it can be called defective, causing incomplete melting. The inhomogeneous hot short crisp usually appears in the outer layer of the thick brass area.
This defect can be eliminated by adequately heating and melting the molten brass material that must be poured into cavities.
ii. Forging Cracks
The cracking appears when there is a change in the inner pressure of the furnace. The oxidation loss will appear if the mold is heated with dense inner gas.
A large amount of oxygen loss can lower the tensile strength and flexibility, producing cracking on the surface of products.
iii. Stress Corrosion Cracking
Stress corrosion cracking is a combination of fatigue and corrosion. It can occur in a variety of industries, including brass forging.
Metal forming requires materials to be stretched to overload, creating micro-cracks in the metal.
For the elimination of Stress Corrosion Cracking, the valve must be made perfect, and it must be free from all forms of defects that could lead to this defect.
For all your brass forging needs, contact us now.